Almodis of La Marche
Almodis was the daughter of Bernard, count of La Marche, and Amelia. She had two sisters, Rangard, who married Peter Raymond of Carcassonne, and Lucia, who married Artau, count of Pallars. Almodis was married three times, first to Hugh of Lusignan, a marriage annulled because of consanguinity, then to Pons, count of Toulouse, in 1040, and finally to Raymond Berengar/Berenguer, count of Barcelona, in 1052, while the first two husbands were still alive. It is not clear whether she left Pons to marry Raymond or Pons was complicit, but Raymond repudiated his second wife, Bianca, to marry her and she gained prestige and power through the marriage. A Muslim historian, al-Bakri, gives a romantic reading of the event, reporting that Raymond had hired the Saracen fleet of Tortosa to spirit Almodis away from her then husband (Bonnassie, La Catalogne, 353), having met her in Narbonne during a trip to Rome. Bonnassie (353-54 and 510) reports that she conducted her own correspondence and diplomacy with Muslim rulers, and that the emir of Denia, Ali ben Mochehid called her a “glorious queen,” and declared himself her “faithful friend,” but unfortunately only a fragment remains. Bonnassie also notes that Almodis was involved in Languedoc to ensure the heritage of her sons with Pons (510). As the mother of William IV of Toulouse, Almodis was the great great grand-mother of Eleanor of Aquitaine: William's daughter Philippa was the mother of Guillaume X of Aquitaine, Eleanor's father.
Although the several marriages drew sharp criticism from some, they did not inhibit her activities. Cheyette describes her as “one of the many powerful female politicians of this eleventh-twelfth century Mediterranean world” (“The Sale,” 839) and Bonnassie says the development of the state of Barcelona was mainly the work of Raymond and Almodis, who should be ranked among the principal figures (“les plus hautes figures”) of the 11th century (878). After her marriage to Raymond, oaths of fidelity were taken to Almodis as well as to her husband, many if not most acts of sale or exchange named both of them, and a substantial number were in her name alone. Both Raymond and Almodis were concerned with the law, indeed they are presented as models of legislating princes in the 12th century Gesta Comitum Barcinonensium, and their policies are reflected in the first codification of laws in the Usatici Barchinone. Bonnassie (719) notes that Almodis borrowed a manuscript of the Liber Iudicum from the cathedral for her own use, which the bishop later asked her to return.
Almodis’ dower from Raymond included the city and bishopric of Girona, with its abbeys, and what his grandmother Ermessenda had held (and still administered) in counties of Ausone and Barcelona (HGL 3.319). Ermessenda, who did not approve of Raymond’s repudiation of his second wife and did not want to give up her lands, appealed to pope Victor II, who had Raymond and Almodis excommunicated; Ermessenda eventually gave in, in 1057, for a payment of 1000 gold ounces, swore fidelity to them, and asked the pope to lift the excommunication (LFM 1.225, #215). Almodis’ dower from Pons probably included St. Gilles, which she continued to hold with their son Raymond, after her remarriage (HGL 3.351). She acted with both sons from that marriage (e.g., a record of the document which the countess and count William of Toulouse had made about their donation to St. Peter of Moissac, HGL 5.544-46, #277, dated 1067 and one to the abbey of S. Gilles with Raymond , HGL 5.542-44, #276.); she also arranged the marriage of her daughter from that marriage, Almodis, to the count of Melgueil and Substantion (B0nassie, 861-62).
Almodis had children in each marriage: a son with Hugh; with Pons, three sons, Guillaume IV of Toulouse, Raymond of St. Gilles, and one who died young, HGL 3.339) and a daughter, Almodis; with Raymond Berengar, twin sons, Raymond Berengar II (who married Matilda, daughter of Robert Guiscard, Norman duke of Puglia and Calabria), and Berengar Raymond who murdered his brother in 1082 (Bonassie, 862) and two daughters, Sancia who married William Raymond, count of Cerdanya, and Agnes, who married Guigo de Albion. Almodis was directly involved with her husband in the purchases of rights (1067, 1070) to Carcassone and Razès from her niece Ermengard and her husband against the claims of her own sister, Rangard, Ermengard’s mother, though Ermengard did not have clear possession of them, presumably to pass them on to Almodis’ son, who was not then heir to Barcelona. Raymond Berengar had had a son, Peter Raymond, with his first wife, Elisabeth, and this stepson, the heir to Barcelona, killed Almodis in 1071. There is no mention of her in any act after 1071.
Almodis is the sender or receiver with her husband of so many official documents of sale, of agreement over towns, of oaths of fidelity, and those documents tend to be so repetitive, except for the names of the towns involved and amounts of money or numbers of armed men to be supplied, that I have chosen to give a sampling of those that are in both their names and to list the rest below. The source is the Liber Feudorum Maior, ed. F. M. Rosell (Barcelona, 1945), 2 v. hereinafter LFM.
LFM 1.185-88, #175, July 5, 1063. Agreement reached by Raymond and Almodis with Bernard and Martin Riculf, brothers, over the town of Balçaren and Galiano and the honor of Oristano, city and county of Girona, city of Minorissa, count of Osona, towns of Cardona, Cervaria, Tarrega, Kamarasa, Cubels, Stopaniano, Cannelas, Puirog, count of Penitens; they promise fidelity, aid against enemies, supplying fifty knights in their army, turning over towns when requested.
LFM 1.188-90, #176, 1063 Oath by Bernard Riculf and Miro Riculf to Raymond and Almodis to be faithful, to their lives and limbs and city and county of Barcelona, Girona, and others named in #175, to yield power over them when asked, to Almodis if Raymond dies, not to take any of it, observe all unless released by both or one of them.
LFM 1.191-92, #179, May 4, 1065. Agreement between Bernard Dalmad of Castel Folit and Raymond and Almodis, to supply mounted men, courts, assemblies, etc., help them to hold lands and castles and honors, and parias [tributes between lords].
LFM, 1.192-94, #180, 1053-71. Oath of Udalard, viscount of Bas, to Raymond and Almodis, not to deceive/deprive of cities, counties, bishoprics, abbeys, towns, castles, etc., to help against others, except the count of Besalu, unless they call on him before he settles his disagreement with the count of Besalu over an abbey.
LFM, 1.205-06, #194, May 2, 1062. Sale by Bernard Bonushomo and wife Ermengard to Raymond and Almodis of honor of Furmigosa, their allod, that came to him by purchase and to her by tithe and other rights.
LFM 1.206-08, #195, December 8, 1068. Sale by Eribald and wife Ermengard, to Raymond and Almodis, of allod that was Sendre Cunil’s, land and vineyards in Villa Longa, the county of Minorissa, that came to him through his wife and to her from her parents and other rights.
LFM, 1.208-09, #196, August 23, 1063. Sale by Adroer and his wife Em, to Raymond and Almodis, of land in Furmigosa and Menresana, in the county of Minorissa, that came by purchase and other rights.
LFM 1.209, #197, December 8, 1063. Exchange made by Bernard Raymund and his wife Ermeniard, with Raymond and Almodis, of their allod for another in the territory of Barcelona, in Minorissa, in a place called Murria, which had come to them by purchase and tithe and whatever rights.
LFM 1.216-17, #207, March 31, 1009. Donation made by Raymond and Almodis to Raymond Fulco and his wife viscountess Ermessen of Valle Fornes.
LFM 1.220-23, #214, June 4, 1057. Sale made by viscountess Ermessind, daughter of the late countess Adelaide, to Raymond and Almodis, of counties and bishoprics of Girona, Barcelona, Osona, and county of Minorissa, which were his grandfather’s, her husband’s, and were left to her, and which she says should more properly be his, so she sells them to him.
LFM 1.223-26, #215, 1057. The oath of fidelity taken by viscountess Ermessind to Raymond and Almodis, in which she says she will have the pope rescind his excommunication of them.
LFM 1.238-39, #227, August 10, 1063. Agreement between Gerbert Guitard and count Raymond and countess Almodis over the town of Castelvel and the town of Vetulo which he held through viscount Udalard.
LFM 1.241-42, #229, June 20, 1067. Sale by Bernard Odegar and his wife Guisla to Raymond and Almodis of the town of Pontons, in the county of Barcelona, which came to them by right of their parents and other rights, for the evil which said Bernard did to the count and countess, which he could not amend, and for money.
LFM 1.242-43, #230, July 23, 1067. Sale of town of Pontons to Raymond and Almodis, notable because it lists numerous female members of the sellers’ family as sellers, who also sign the document: Guitard Guillelmi, his wife, Guilla, son, Peter, daughter Gersind, mother Gersind, sisters, Elliard, abbess of St. Peter of Barcelona, Ermessind, wife of Miro Suniar, Ermengard, wife of Bertrand, and Guilia, wife of Fulk Miro, Adelaide, wife of Raymond William of Periag, “nos omnes supradicti venditores sumus.”
LFM 1.243-44, #231, December 1, 1066. Sale of lands and vineyards in Pontons to Raymond and Almodis.
LFM 1.244-46, #232, April 15, 1067. Agreement between Raymond and Almodis and William Bernard of Odena and wife Ermengard, to entrust the town of Pontons to them, half of the parish and fees as fief, not to impose taxes that might cause complaints to Raymond and Almodis without their permission, any castellans they appoint to be at the will and approval of the count and countess.
LFM 1.247, #234, November 8, 1067. Agreement between Roland William of Voltrera and Raymond and Almodis that he will be faithful and help to defend and fight for city and county of Girona, Barcelona, Osona, Minorissa and Penitens.
LFM 1.266-67, #251, March 25, 1054. Agreement between Raymond Berengar, Almodis, their sons Raymond and Berengar, and Arnall Peter over Barbera, which they give him in fief, specifying what they give and what they retain.
LFM 1.277-78, #257, January 11, 1038. Gift made by Raymond and wife Almodis of town of Fores to Miro Fogueti and nephew but, as editor notes, Almodis was not married to Raymond until 1053.
LFM 1.302, #277, 1053-71. Oath taken to count Raymond, son of countess Sancia, and to countess Almodis, daughter of Amelia, by Berengar and William, sons of the woman Tedlena, to be faithful, and promise to give them power over town of St. Perpetua whenever they ask, not to take it or anything from it.
LFM 1.304-05, #279, June 11, 1065. Sale by William, bishop of Ausona, to Raymond and Almodis, of town Copons, in county of Ausona, which he inherited from his parents, as their allod, for five hundred ounces of Barcelona gold.
LFM 1.305-06, #280, April 10, 1066. Sale by Miro Martin and wife Ermeniard, to Raymond and Almodis, of lands, vineyards, houses, gardens, in three separate parts of county Osona, Monte Falocho, Viciana, Benviure for 56 marks (mancusos) of pure gold of Barcelona money.
LFM 1.306-07, #281, November 8, 1065. Sale by William Sendred and wife Adaleide, to Raymond and Almodis, a piece of land in the town of Monte Falcon, inherited from their parents, except one part that a nephew has, for 63 marks of Barcelona money which “we received and for your Barcelona gold money which we, hindered by sin, falsified to you and you determined, in the sight of many men” (propter precium LX et III mancusos monete Barchinone, quos nos accepimus, et propter vestram monetam Barchinone de auro quam, peccato nostro prepediente, falsavimus vobis et vos ad nos deffinitis, videntibus multis hominibus).
LFM 1.307-08, #282, February 24, 1067. Agreement between Raymond and Almodis by which they give Raymond Guifred of Vilamur the town of Taliadel in fief, and they give Raymond 20 ounces of Barcelona gold money to build the best tower of stone and lime and keep four mounted and armed men and fight for them as needed, and they could take it over if they wished.
LFM 1.308-09, #283, 1053-71. Oath taken by Gerall Marcuti to Raymond and Almodis to be faithful, to give them power over Chubells and the wealth they have given him if they asked.
LFM 1.310, #285, 1053-71. Oath by Oliver, son of late woman Chixol, to Raymond and Almodis, not to deceive/deprive them of town of Mager, to give it over when asked, to help against any who would prevent it.
LFM 1.310-11, #286, 1053-71. Oath by Isarn, son of the late woman Ermesenn, to Raymond and Almodis, not to deceive/deprive them of town of Mager, to give it over when asked.
LFM 1.311-12, #287, June 15 1064. Sale by Artall and wife Adalaide, to Raymond and Almodis, of a tower and houses and courts in Valle Orsera in the town of Monte Acuto, in the county of Barcelona, which they had bought and acquired by tithes, for 42 marks of pure gold in Barcelona money, weighed at ten to an ounce, that you gave and we received from your hands.
LFM 1.312-13, #288, October 1, 1062 Agreement Gerall Alaman made with Raymond and Almodis to be a faithful aid to them to hold and defend the city of Barcelona and the town of Castrum Vetulum, at one gate, Castrum Novum at another, the bishopric of Holy Cross and St. Eulalia, the county of Barcelona, the city and county of Girona, Minorissa, Osona; and he will not deceive/deprive them of castles of Mont Agud, Querol, Pinnana and Pontils, but would give them over when asked to them or their sons after their deaths. If not, he would have to make it up to them in 40 days.
LFM 1.313-15, #289, 1062. Oath by Gerall Alaman to count Raymond [alone] but which has several clauses at the end that include Almodis, to hold and attend to him and her while he, count Raymond, is alive, after he dies to Almodis and Peter Raymond, his son, if they survive him, and he will keep the oath to Almodis and Peter Raymond as long as Raymond gives her the jurisdiction over Peter Raymond by will or word. If Peter dies, Gerall will similarly keep it to son Raymund and to Almodis, if he dies to son Berengar and Almodis. If all sons die, he will keep it to said Almodis, countess, while she is alive, after her death to whomever Raymond named in will or words.
LFM 1.323-24, #296, July 1, 1059. Agreement of Miro Gerbert and wife Guilia and their sons, with Raymond and Almodis over the towns of Besaura and Churull and the fief Gondeball held in the county of Osona, Barcelona, Valles, with the promise of having their other sons sign, when they came of age, the donation of Portus.
LFM 1.326-27, #301, July 2, 1059. Donation by Raymond and Almodis to Miro Gerbert and wife Guila and their son or sons to whom they gave the town of Montbui, the church of St. Peter of Biges and the fief between the church and the parish which Gondeball of Besora held and others.
LFM 1.334, #310, August 8, 1063. Agreement between Raymond Bernard of Castele and Raymond and Almodis, to be their vassal, to have no other lord, unless released by them, to fight for them with his men as called upon.
LFM 1.3388-39, #314, January 27, 1066. Sale by Stephan Mir and wife Adalvira and brother Dela and neice Guisla, to Raymond Berengar and Almodis, of lands and vineyards in Olerdula in the county of Barcelona in the allod of the tower of Dela for 17 marks and a third part.
LFM 1.339-40, #315, September 1, 1066. Sale by Arbert Berengar to Raymond and Almodis of his allod, the part he has in a tower called Dela, and other allods around it, lands, vineyards, etc. in Olerdula for eighthundred marks of pure gold of Barcelona money.
LFM 1.340-41, #316, January 26, 1067. Sale by Raymond, William, and Berengar Donnuci, brothers to Raymond and Almodis, of their shares of the tower of Dela, with lands and vineyards for 800 marks of Barcelona money.
LFM 1.346-8, #325, July 5, 1063. Instrument of exchange made by Udalard, viscount of Barcelona and his wife Guisla, with Raymond and Almodis, of the town of Apiara, also called Fontaned, which he had bought from his uncle bishop, and the town of Castellet, for the castle of Apierola, which Raymond then turned over to Almodis (see #326).
LFM 1.350, #327, September 3, 1062. Sale by Enard and his wife Ermengard to Raymond and Almodis for 2 ounces of gold, of a house and its court in Piera, near St. Mary, and three vineyards, which they had bought.
LFM 1.350-51, #328, September 3, 1062. Sale by Tedmund and wife Orseta to Raymond and Almodis for four ounces, of mill and land that pertains to it, which they had bought, on the edge of Fontanet/Piera, near Annolla.
LFM 1.351-52, #329, September 3, 1062. Sale by Iovan and wife Guinedel, to Raymond and Almodis, of a mill, its land and house and trees for 4 ounces of refined gold.
LFM 1.358-60, #337, January 29, 1063. Agreement between Raymond and Almodis and Udalard, viscount for the Old Town (Castrum Vetulum) at one gate of Barcelona, and New Town (Chastrum Novum) called Vicecomitale at another, that he would help them hold and defend Barcelona and those towns and Girona, Minorissa, Osona according to the oath of fidelity he swore to them, and would appoint a castellan approved by them.
LFM 1.381-82, #356, October 6, 1066. Sale by a woman, Loba, and her son, Bonefilio, to Raymond and Almodis of land and a house, with court, both single and one above another, gutters, gates, walls, dikes, sewers, in the plane of Lubrichato, in Barcelona territory, which came from her parents for 210 marks of pure gold of Barcelona money, weighed one by one at the weight of current money.
LFM 1.382-83, #357, November 11, 1068. Sale by Bonefilio Miro and wife Guilia to Raymond and Almodis of lands and vineyards and churches, in various places within Barcelona territory, which he had inherited or bought and she had as tithe and other rights, for 30 ounces of gold of Barcelona money.
LFM 1.384-85, #359, May 23, 1069. Sale by Bompar Compagno and wife Eiçulina, to Raymond and Almodis, of a piece of land in Miciano, in Barcelona territory, which came to them from parents and tithe, for 35 marks of refined gold of Barcelona money.
LFM 1.385, #360, February 22, 1067. Sale by Miro and his wife Ermesind to Raymond and Almodis of 2 measures of land in three places, that they inherited from relatives and tithes, in Olorda, near Lubricato in the county of Barcelona, 12 marks of good and best gold of Barcelona.
LFM 1.386, #361, November 3, 1067. Sale by Raymond Miro and wife Ioclendis to Raymond and Almodis of their allod, 4 pieces of land and one dwelling and fig-trees, for 50 ounces of gold money of Barcelona, weighed legitimately at current weight.
LFM 1.387, #362, November 9, 1068. Sale by Raymond Oliban and his wife Ledgard to Raymond and Almodis of an allod in Barcelona county in the parishes of St. John of Lubricato and St. Justin of Vercio for 280 marks of Barcelona money at current weight, which he inherited and she had by tithe.
LFM 1.397-98, #379, July 6, 1067. Sale by Bonefilius Suniar to Raymond and Almodis of a farm in the parish of St. Julian of Alfod, which he had inherited, for 10 ounces of gold money of Barcelona.
LFM 1.399, #381, July 5, 1058. Sale by Miro Olibe to Raymond and Almodis of an allod, a piece of land suited to barley, grain, and “ferrana,” for 60 marks of refined gold of the best Barcelona money, legitimately weighed.
LFM 1.410-11, #392, April 8, 1065. Sale by Bernard Galfred of Pals to Raymond and Almodis of the town of Monte Aspero, also called Pals, which he inherited from both parents, for 100 ounces of Barcelona gold money counting 7 marks to the ounce and two pieces of feudal land [cavallaria, fief held only by a knight] in fief, which I amend to you for the two sacrileges that I committed in your church of Buada.
LFM 1.411-12, #393, May 7, 1057. Determination between Raymond and Almodis and Raymond Seniofred of Olio over revenue/tax rights for Locustaria and Raymond Seniofred’s allod. They leave Olio to him except that he cannot build a town or castle or tower there without their counsel and will.
LFM 1.413-14, #394, December 29, 1068. Sale by Arnall Saule and his wife Constancia to Raymond and Almodis of their allods in the county of Osona, naming various dwellings and their former inhabitants, which came to him through his parents and to his wife through him, for 20 ounces of Barcelona gold money.
LFM 1.416-17, #398, March 21, 1055. Agreement between Raymond and Almodis and Bernard Tedmaro that he would help them hold all their honors except against Pons Gerall and his mother Ermessind, and two others, for which agreement, Raymond and Almodis send in pledge to Bernard a quarter of the tithes of the parish of St. Martin of Palafrugel, which Bernard held from countess Ermessind, on the agreement that the count and countess would give him seven ounces of Barcelona gold in marks each year, with various other arrangements.
LFM 1.423-25, #403, September 10, 1061. Agreement between Pontius Gerall, viscount of Capraria, and Raymond and Almodis, his promise of fidelity, aid, and redress of ills committed by his men (or someone else’s) to the count and countess; he would turn over the church of St. Felix of Celran with all its appurtenances to the power of the bishop Berengar, and have the knights (mounted men) to whom he had given it do the same. He gives 20 hostages to be redeemed by 20,000 solidos, two thousand for each one, worth 280 Barcelona marks.
LFM 1.440-41, #419, 1053-71. Donation made by Raymond and Almodis to Peter, son of Amato Hildric, of the honor his father held, Castro Novo of Barcelona, Oris, and Solterra, under the tutelage of his uncle Raymond Miro until Peter reaches 20 years of age; his mother keeps all her late husband’s allods, except Cervaria, to hold with her son while she remains a widow, under the tutelage of Raymond Miro.
LFM 1.441-42, #420, April 14, 1060. Agreement between Raymond Miro of Acuta and Raymond and Almodis, accepting the tutelage of Peter and his mother Adelaide and promising fidelity to Raymond and Almodis.
LFM 1.442-43, #421, August 7, 1066. Agreement of Raymond Guadall with Raymond and Almodis, to give Castro Novo and its fiefs and parishes, to Peter Amato, his man, who would takethe oaths to him when he came of age that his father had.
LFM 1.443-44, #422, June 10, 1066. Agreement between William Bernard of Cheralt and Raymond and Almodis to give them all the charters which Raymond’s father Berengar and his mother had made with William’s father and mother for the towns of Gurb and Salent as allod; if he could not find them all, he would swear that he did not have them, that noone was hiding them to the harm of Raymond and Almodis.
LFM 1.444, #423, 1066. Agreement by William Bernard of Cheralt with Raymond and Almodis, in the presence of many witnesses, that he would not claim any rights to Gurb and Salent as allod.
LFM 1.445-46, #424, 1066. Oath taken by Wlliam Bernard, son of the woman, Chixol, to Raymond and Almodis, to be faithful to them, to be an aid in defense of cities and/or counties of Barcelona, Girona, Minorissa, and Osona, and the bishoprics of St. Mary of Girona and St. Peter of Vico, and others.
LFM 1.463-65, #442, February 15, 1067. Resolution through a hearing before Raymond and Almodis of a dispute between William, bishop of Osona, and William, abbot of Ripoll, over the town of Medalia, which countess Adelaide had left to St. Peter of Vico and St. Mary of Ripoll, half each.
LFM 1.466, #443, February 17, 1067. Sale by bishop William of Osona to Raymond and Almodis of half the town of Medalia.
LFM 1.466-67, #444, February 24, 1067. Sale by the abbot and convent of St. Mary of Ripoll of half of Medalia to Raymond and Almodis.
LFM 1.472-73, #449, 1053-71. Oath of fidelity taken by Raymond, son of Maria, to Raymond and Almodis.
LFM 1.473, #450, 1053-71 Oath of fidelity taken by Raymond, son of Adaltrude, to Raymond and Almodis.
LFM 1.474-75, #451, April 29, 1065. Agreement made by Bernard Raymond and his mother Rodelind with Raymond and Almodis, to be faithful to them henceforth, to surrender the town of Cleran as required, etc., for which they receive the town in fief.
LFM 1.475-76, #452 1053-71. Oath taken by Bernard Raymond to Raymond and Almodis.
LFM 1.501-03, #472, April 25, 1062. Agreement between Dalmacius Bernard and Raymond and Almodis, over town and fief of Begur. Dalmacius promises his help, fidelity, power to them over the town when required, letting them post their guard duty there.
LFM 1.515-16, #485, April 29, 1065. Agreement between Gaucefred Baston and Raymond and Almodis, over the towns of Cerviano and Pubal, his fidelity, aid, power to them over the town when required, and twenty mounted men to fight for them.
LFM 1.517, #486, 1065. Oath of Baucefred Baston to Raymond and Almodis.LFM 2.32-33, #519, 1053-71. Oath of count Pons, son of Guisla, to Raymond and Almodis.
 Donald Kagay argues that Almodis was moved more by desire for family stability and advancement than lust in her third marriage ("`Illustrious and Distinguished Queen' or `Woman of Sad, Unbridgled Lewdness'," Queens, Regents and Potentates, ed. Theresa M. Vann (Academia: 1993), 39.
 William of Malmesbury called her a woman of “sad, unbridled lewdness,” because of the many times she had been married (multis vicissem desponsata … insano muliercula pruritu et irreverenti, ut cum ei longo usu vir displicuisset, alias migraret novos impletura penates” Gesta regum Anglorum, ed. T.D. Hardy 4.#338), cited by Cheyette, “The Sale,” 839.
 Information in the biography is drawn from Frederic L. Cheyette, “The `Sale’ of Carcassonne to the Counts of Barcelona (1067-1070) and the Rise of the Trencavels,” Speculum 63 (1988), 826-64, from the Histoire Générale de Languedoc, v.3, and from Pierre Bonnassie, La Catalogne du milieu du Xe à la fin du XIe Siècle (Toulouse: Université de Toulouse), 1975, 2v.